Sunday, September 1, 2019
Philosophy 201 Essay
Welcome to this introductory course in philosophy. For our first lesson, we are going to examine the question: What is philosophy? There are 4 ways you can get to know what a discipline is: define it, describe it, contrast and compare it with other disciplines, and finally experience it. In this first lesson, we will aim to accomplish the first 3 of these activities. The rest of the course will be an exercise in experiencing philosophy. Tasks View and take notes of the presentation, Ã¢â¬Å"Misconceptions about PhilosophyÃ¢â¬ . Read and take notes from chapter 1 of Philosophy: Critically Thinking about Foundational Beliefs, Ã¢â¬Å"What is Philosophy? Ã¢â¬ As you read, make sure you understand the following points and questions: * List 4 reasons students often presuppose a low view of philosophy. * Know SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ quote: What is the unexamined life? What did he mean when he said it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t worth living? * Know the etymology of the word Ã¢â¬Å"philosophy. Ã¢â¬ * Know the working definition of Ã¢â¬Å"philosophyÃ¢â¬ and explain each of its elements. * List and explain each of the 6 characteristics under the description of philosophy. * Contrast and compare philosophy with religion, science, and art. How are they different and how are they similar? * Explain the value of experiential knowledge in distinction to propositional knowledge. Terms Make sure you fully understand the following terms and concepts: * The unexamined life * The rational animal * Normative claim * Wisdom * Philosophy * Critical examination * Clarification * Justification * Evaluation * Foundational beliefs| * Presupposition * First-order discipline * Second-order discipline * Ambiguous * Vague * Worldview * Scientism * Propositional knowledge * Experiential knowledge| Ã¢â¬ ¢List 4 reasons students often presuppose a low view of philosophy. 1. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the image that one has to be super-intelligent to do philosophy. 2. As a discipline, most students study it late in their academic development, most take their first philosophy class in college. 3. Most people donÃ¢â¬â¢t think it is very practical. 4. The main reason is that student simply donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what it is or how is can benefit them. Ã¢â¬ ¢Know SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ quote: Ã¢â¬Å"The unexamined life is not worth living. Ã¢â¬ What is the unexamined life? The unexamined life is to go through the motions of life without making the effort to reflect and think about what life is about. What did he mean when he said it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t worth living? When Socrates claims that the unexamined life is not worth living, he is saying that the unexamined life is a sub-human life-it is the life of a lower animal, like a dog or cow. Ã¢â¬ ¢Know the etymology of the word Ã¢â¬Å"philosophy. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢Know the working definition of Ã¢â¬Å"philosophyÃ¢â¬ and explain each of its elements. Ã¢â¬ ¢List and explain each of the 6 characteristics under the description of philosophy. Ã¢â¬ ¢Contrast and compare philosophy with religion, science, and art. How are they different and how are they similar? Ã¢â¬ ¢Explain the value of experiential knowledge in distinction to propositional knowledge. Terms Make sure you fully understand the following terms and concepts: Ã¢â¬ ¢The unexamined life- life as an a animal such as a dog or a cow. Ã¢â¬ ¢The rational animal- unlike other in the animal kingdom, man has the ability to reason and reflect about himself and the world around him. (the cognitive abilities) Ã¢â¬ ¢Normative claim- makes a claim about some action, persons ought to do. (donÃ¢â¬â¢t lie and help our fellow man) Ã¢â¬ ¢Wisdom- is knowledge applied in a way that benefits your life. Ã¢â¬ ¢Philosophy- is examining life; is the love of wisdom; is actually the combination of two terms in Greeks: Phileo- is a Greek term for love, meant to express great affection for something and Sophos Ã¢â¬â is the word for Ã¢â¬Å"wisdomÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢Critical examination- analysis of what is read or heard rather than taken at face value. Ã¢â¬ ¢Clarification-the meaning of what was said. Ã¢â¬ ¢Justification-what validate the true of this statement or observation. Ã¢â¬ ¢Evaluation- the significance of what one wants clarity on. Ã¢â¬ ¢Foundational beliefs- those that are central and fundamental to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s overall worldview and yet are often not thought about. Ã¢â¬ ¢Presupposition- are beliefs one usually doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t think about or try to prove. Ã¢â¬ ¢First-order discipline Ã¢â¬ ¢Second-order discipline Ã¢â¬ ¢Ambiguous Ã¢â¬ ¢Vague Ã¢â¬ ¢Worldview Ã¢â¬ ¢Scientism Ã¢â¬ ¢Propositional knowledge Ã¢â¬ ¢Experiential knowledge.